Escola Superior de Conservació i Restauració de Bés Culturals de Catalunya
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Fluorescence and photo degradation of Xuan paper: The photostability of traditional Chinese handmade paper

Contributor(s): GERALD, J. Smith | YING, TangMaterial type: ArticleArticleDescription: 7 pISBN: 1296-2074Subject(s): Chinese handmade paper | Fluorescence | Photodegradation mechanism | Reactive oxygen species | Xuan paper In: Journal of Cultural Heritage 3 14 4, 464-470Abstract: Xuan paper is a type of Chinese handmade paper produced for traditional calligraphy and painting in China since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), and is therefore an important cultural heritage material. this study, the fluorescence and photochemical properties of Xuan paper were investigated. Xuan paper exhibits auto-fluorescence in the blue spectral range (450-500nm) and UVA photolysis of the paper resulted in a substantial reduction in the blue fluorescence together with the formation of chromophores absorbing in the visible spectrum, resulting in photo yellowing of the paper. A more significant yellowing of paper was observed when irradiated in the dry state than under wet conditions. The associated photo generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide from three types of Xuan paper samples during irradiation showed a correlation between the yields of reactive oxygen species and their relative yellowing rates. The results are interpreted in terms of sensitized photooxidation via a mechanism of electron transfer involving the fluorophores in their excited singlet states being responsible for the photo degradation of Xuan paper. SEM/EDS analyses were performed on the Xuan paper samples to investigate their morphological and elemental characteristics. Silica-containing fibres characteristic of a special rice straw that grows in siliceous soil were observed in all types of Xuan paper. Micron-sized calcium precipitates possibly formed from the "lime-steaming" manufacture process were shown to protect against the acidification of paper during accelerated thermal ageing.
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Article de revista Article de revista Biblioteca de l' Escola Superior Conservació i Restauració de Bens Culturals de Catalunya
Journal of Cultural Heritage 3 (Browse shelf(Opens below)) Available Art-154

Xuan paper is a type of Chinese handmade paper produced for traditional calligraphy and painting in China since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), and is therefore an important cultural heritage material. this study, the fluorescence and photochemical properties of Xuan paper were investigated. Xuan paper exhibits auto-fluorescence in the blue spectral range (450-500nm) and UVA photolysis of the paper resulted in a substantial reduction in the blue fluorescence together with the formation of chromophores absorbing in the visible spectrum, resulting in photo yellowing of the paper. A more significant yellowing of paper was observed when irradiated in the dry state than under wet conditions. The associated photo generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide from three types of Xuan paper samples during irradiation showed a correlation between the yields of reactive oxygen species and their relative yellowing rates. The results are interpreted in terms of sensitized photooxidation via a mechanism of electron transfer involving the fluorophores in their excited singlet states being responsible for the photo degradation of Xuan paper. SEM/EDS analyses were performed on the Xuan paper samples to investigate their morphological and elemental characteristics. Silica-containing fibres characteristic of a special rice straw that grows in siliceous soil were observed in all types of Xuan paper. Micron-sized calcium precipitates possibly formed from the "lime-steaming" manufacture process were shown to protect against the acidification of paper during accelerated thermal ageing.

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