Escola Superior de Conservació i Restauració de Bés Culturals de Catalunya
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First aid for flood-damaged paper using saltwater: The inhibiting effect of saltwater on mold growth

Contributor(s): Enomae, Toshiharu | Higashijima, Kenta | Hori, Chiaki | Igarashi, Kiyohiko | Isogai, AkiraMaterial type: ArticleArticleDescription: 8 pISBN: 0039-3630Subject(s): Cellulose | Celulosa | Conservació de papel | Conservación de papel | copia en papel | copia en paper | Copy paper | First aid | Flood | Fongs | Fungus | Hongos | Inundació | inundación | Osmotic pressure | Paper conservation | Presión osmotica | Pressio osmotica | primeros auxilios | Sal | Salt In: Studies in Conservation 3 57 3, 164-171Abstract: With the aim of developing a new easy-to-use method for rescuing flood-damaged paper, the effect of saltwater on the inhibition of fungal growth on paper was investigated. This procedure could be used instead of, or assisted by freeze drying. Cellulose-digesting Trichoderma ressei, three types of fungi representative of fungi growing on paper (T. reesei, Aspergillus terreus, and Aureobasidium pullulans) and various naturally airborne fungi were cultured on cellulosic materials in liquid media containing artificial seawather with different salt concentrations. The addition of salts successfully inhibited the growth of T.reesei on microcrystalline cellulose at the concentration of 3.2% (m/m) or higher. The critical salt concentration, 3.2%, is within the general range of salt content in seawather. Other solutions of salts similar to sodium cloride also inhibited fungal growth. Although the observed growth-inhibiting effect was attibuted to the high osmotic pressure of the salt solution, physiological effects depending on ion species inhibited effectively when the salt concentration was increased. The growth of all three types of fungi on copy paper was cellulose, with enough oxygen supplied to pores, was completely inhibited (as assessed by visual examination) for 24 days at salt concentrations of 3.5% (m/m) or greater. The fact that the effect of saltwater on cellulosic materials was observed even under optimum medium conditions implies that fungi would be considerably inhibited on flood-damaged paper immersed in saltwater. This method is a promising first aid measure when circumstances do not allow for flood-damaged paper to be dried immediately.
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Article de revista Article de revista Biblioteca de l' Escola Superior Conservació i Restauració de Bens Culturals de Catalunya
Studies in Conservation 3 (Browse shelf(Opens below)) Available R: 2794 Art-155

With the aim of developing a new easy-to-use method for rescuing flood-damaged paper, the effect of saltwater on the inhibition of fungal growth on paper was investigated. This procedure could be used instead of, or assisted by freeze drying. Cellulose-digesting Trichoderma ressei, three types of fungi representative of fungi growing on paper (T. reesei, Aspergillus terreus, and Aureobasidium pullulans) and various naturally airborne fungi were cultured on cellulosic materials in liquid media containing artificial seawather with different salt concentrations. The addition of salts successfully inhibited the growth of T.reesei on microcrystalline cellulose at the concentration of 3.2% (m/m) or higher. The critical salt concentration, 3.2%, is within the general range of salt content in seawather. Other solutions of salts similar to sodium cloride also inhibited fungal growth. Although the observed growth-inhibiting effect was attibuted to the high osmotic pressure of the salt solution, physiological effects depending on ion species inhibited effectively when the salt concentration was increased. The growth of all three types of fungi on copy paper was cellulose, with enough oxygen supplied to pores, was completely inhibited (as assessed by visual examination) for 24 days at salt concentrations of 3.5% (m/m) or greater. The fact that the effect of saltwater on cellulosic materials was observed even under optimum medium conditions implies that fungi would be considerably inhibited on flood-damaged paper immersed in saltwater. This method is a promising first aid measure when circumstances do not allow for flood-damaged paper to be dried immediately.

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